Encaustics



Encaustic is a wax based paint (composed of  beeswax, resin and pigment), that is kept molten on a heated palette. It is applied to a porous surface and then reheated in order to fuse the paint.  The word ‘encaustic’ has no connection to the word caustic; it comes from the Greek word enkaiein, meaning to burn in, referring to the process of fusing the paint.  

Encaustic is perhaps the most beautiful of all artists' paints, and it is as versatile as any 21st century medium. It can be polished to a high gloss, carved, scraped, layered, collaged, dipped, cast, modeled, sculpted, textured, and combined with oil. It cools immediately, so that there is no drying time, yet it can always be reworked.

Encaustic is also the most durable artists' paint. This is due to the fact that beeswax is impervious to moisture. Because of this, it will not deteriorate, it will not yellow, and it will not darken. Encaustic paintings do not have to be varnished or protected by glass.
Encaustic paint does not require the use of solvents. As a result, a number of health hazards are reduced or eliminated.

What is Encaustic?

R&F Encaustic is a paint composed of beeswax, damar resin and pigments. The term “encaustic” is often used to describe both the paint itself, and the method for using it. Encaustic paint is applied molten to an absorbent surface, and then fused, (or re-melted), to create a variety of effects. Unlike other paints, encaustic goes from a liquid to solid state and back again in seconds, which means  layers can be built up immediately, without any drying time. Once the surface has cooled, the paint has reached a permanent finish, but the painting can be revised and reworked with heat at any time – minutes or years later.

Is encaustic toxic?

When encaustic is melted, it releases a mixture of chemical decomposition products in the form of fumes. Some of these components are toxic, as are many things that we put into our environment, but what is important is the concentration of the toxins. This concentration correlates directly with temperature, so it’s always advisable to work at the lowest temperature you can. At a low concentration, say at melting point, the effect of wax fumes is negligible beyond their pleasant sweet odor. At a higher temperature, around 200-220°F, which is the working temperature of encaustic, it is important to have ventilation, because the fumes can be irritants, causing headaches, nausea, and respiratory problems. It is important to keep the temperature of the encaustic well below 140°F and do not let it get to the point where it smokes because then toxins become much more concentrated. Pigments used in encaustic should be stable at the working temperatures for encaustic and not volatilize. As with all paints, however, make sure to clean your hands before eating to avoid ingesting pigments that are toxic internally.

 

With adequate ventilation and proper working temperatures (between 180 and 200°F) encaustic is not dangerous.  In many studios, working next to a window exhaust fan and having a source of fresh air coming in from another part of the studio, gets rid of fumes adequately.  It is important to create cross-ventilation in your workspace, because even at recommended working temperatures, wax fumes can be irritants, causing headaches and coughing.  Warning signs that your wax is too hot include an acrid odor and smoking.

What do I need to get started?

Encaustic requires a basic set-up which includes: An Encaustic Palette, or other appliance to melt the paint in; A variable speed heat gun, or alternative tool to fuse the wax. The space you work in should be well-ventilated.

Will encaustic paintings melt if left in a warm environment?

In certain extremes it is possible, but not typical. Cars are the greatest hazard because the heat of the sun is intensified through car windows. Indoor environments, even very warm ones, are not usually hot enough to melt wax, though they could make the wax soft, and therefore difficult to work on. It takes at least 160 degrees to bring wax to a molten state, and probably a little bit more than that to actually cause it to move.

What is Blooming, and how can it be prevented?

Blooming is a whitish haze or spots that appears on the surface of a wax painting. This can occur when the wax has been exposed to extreme cold, causing unsaturated hydrocarbons in the beeswax to migrate to the surface and crystallize. The addition of resins, or waxes that contain saturated hydrocarbons help prevent this. These include damar resin or microcrystalline wax. The saturated hydrocarbons solubalize the unsaturated hydrocarbons of the beeswax and prevent the blooming that occurs from cold.


Top